Some Literature References


Araki S, Aono H, Murata K. Mobilisation of heavy metals into the urine by CaEDTA: relation to erythrocytes and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators. Br J Ind Med. 1986 Sep;43(9):636-41

Fine SD: Calcium disodium edetate and disodium edetate. Drugs for human use; Drug efficacy study implementation. Fed Reg (35)8: Jan. 13, 1970.

Hardy HL: Clinical experience with the use of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the therapy of lead poisoning. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):252, 1961

Haumont S and Vincent J: Action of calcium versenate on lead fixed in vivo in compact bone. Exp Cell Res 18:404, 1959

Heller J and Vostal J: Renal excretion of calcium-disodium-ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid – a new tubular secretory mechanism? Experientia 20:99, 1964.

Kneller LA, Uhl HSM and Brem J: Successful calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate treatment of lead poisoning in an infant. N Engl J Med 252:338, 1955.

Vogt W and Cottier II: Necrotizing nephrosis after treatment of a case of subacute-chronic lead poisoning with CaEDTA in high doses. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 87(22): 665 1957.

Williams JD, Matthews GA and Judd AW: Oral calcium disodium versenate in treatment of lead poisoning. Brit J Indust Med 19:211, 1962.

Agata Calderone, Teresa Jover, * Toshihiro Mashiko, * Kyung-min Noh, Hidenobu Tanaka, Michael V. L. Bennett, and R. Suzanne Zukin. Late Calcium EDTA Rescues Hippocampal CA1 Neurons from Global Ischemia-Induced Death. Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 The Journal of Neuroscience, November 3, 2004, 24(44):9903-9913; JNEUROSCI.1713-04.2004


Chelation, General

Adams WJ and McGee CT: Chelation therapy: a survey of treatment outcomes and selected socio-medical factors. J Adv Med 5(3):189, 1992.

Cantilewa LR, Klassen CD: The effect of chelating agents on the excretion of endogenous metals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 63:344, 1982

Catsch A and Harmuth-Hoene AE: Pharmacology and therapeutic applications of agents used in heavy metal poisoning. Pharmac Ther. A, (1):1, 1976.

Chelation therapy (Diagnostic and therapeutic technology assessment). JAMA 250:672, 1983.

Chelation therapy: a second look. The Harvard Medical School Health Letter, IX:1, 1984.

Chelation Therapy Clinic: Chelation therapy – the treatment of choice for relief from and prevention of, cardiovascular and age-related diseases. Aukland, New Zealand, The Chelation Therapy Clinic, 1987.

Chelation therapy. Resolution: 66 (I-84). AMA House of Delegates. 1984.

Chelation therapy. Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. Report F (I-84). AMA House of Delegates. 1984.

Chelation therapy – An informal summary. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Bethesda, Maryland. June 1992.

Curran CL: Metal chelating agents and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Proc Soc Exper Biol & Med 88:101, 1955.

Davis PS and Deller DJ: Effect of orally administered chelating agents EDTA, DTPA and fructose on radioiron absorption in man. Aust Ann Med 16:70, 1967.

Foreman H: Pharmacology of some useful chelating agents. In Seven MJ and Johnson LA (eds): Metal-Binding in Medicine. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1960.

Foreman H: The use of chelating agents for excelerating excretion of radioelements. J Am Pharm Assoc (42): 629, 1953.

Foreman H: Summary remarks by the chairman. [Proceedings of a conference on biological apects of metal-binding.] Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):257, 1961.

Foreman H: Use of chelating agents in treatment of metal poisoning with special emphsis on lead. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):191, 1961.

Forssman O and Nordqvist P: The action in vitro and in vivo of sodium versenate on the phagocytic activity of neutrophile leukocytes. Acta Haemat 31:289, 1964.

Gordon GF: Oral chelation with EDTA. J Holistic Medicine 8(1):79, 1986.

Gotto AM Jr: Chelation therapy in 1984. Texas Medicine, 80:36, 1984

Handbook of Metal-Ligand Interactions in Biological Fluids. Guy Berthon ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc. N.Y., N.Y. Vol 2. p. 1301,1995

Handbook of Metal-Ligand Interactions in Biological Fluids. Guy Berthon ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc. N.Y., N.Y. Vol 2. p. 1486, 1995

Hart H and Lazlo D: Modification of the distribution and excretion by radioisotopes by chelating agents. Science 118:24, July 1953.

Kebe SR: ACTH and a chelating agent for schizophrenia. West Med 4:46, 1963

Klassen CD: Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. Goodman and Gilman’s :The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th Ed.: 1615,1980

Klassen CD: Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. Goodman and Gilman’s :The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th Ed.: 1627,1980

Klassen CD: Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. Goodman and Gilman’s :The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th Ed.: 1634,1980

Klassen CD: Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists, in Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F (eds): The pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 7th ed. New York, Macmillan, pp. 1605,1985

Oser BL: Observations on the chronic ingestion of a chelating agent by rats and dogs. Fed Proc 20(Suppl 10):158, 1961

Painter JT and Morrow EJ: Porphyria. Its manifestations and treatment with chelating agents. Texas State J Med 55:811, 1959

Pullman TN, Lavender AR and Forland M: Synthetic chelating agents in clinical medicine. Ann Rev Med 14:175, 1963

Rutman JZ, Melttzer LE, Kitchell JR, et al: Effect of metal ions on in vitro gluconeogensis in rat kidney cortex slices. Am J Physiol 208:841, 1965

Schroeder HA, Menhard EM and Perry HM Jr: Antihypertensive effects of metal binding agents. J Lab & Clin Med 23:416, 1955

Schubert J: Radioelement removal by chelating agents: application of mass action laws and other factors. Fed Proc 20(3) Part II Supp#10:206, 1961

Seven MJ: Observations on the dosage of intravenous chelating agents. Antibiotic Med 5:251, 1958

Seven MJ and Johnson LA: Metal Binding in Medicine, JB Lippincott, Phila, 1960.

Seven MJ: Observations on the toxicity of intravenous chelating agents. In: MJ Seven and LA Johnson (Eds). Metal Binding in Medicine JP Lippincot, Phila, 1960

Administration. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 82: 266, 1953

Silverglade A: Chelation clinics. Chest 87:274 1985.

Sincock A: Life extension in the rotifer by application of chelating agents. J Gerontol 30:289, 1975

Tandon SK: Combination therapy: a better approach to chelation in metal intoxication. Plzen.lek.Sborn. Suppl.56:187, 1988

Walshe JM: Triethylene tetramine. Lancet, ii 154, 1970


Keberle M: The biochemistry of desferrioxamine and its relation to iron metabolism. Ann NY Acad Sci 119:758, 1964

Lipschitz D, Dugard J, Simon M, et al: The site of action of desferrioxamine. Br J Haematol 20:396, 1971

Westlin W: Deferoxamine in the treatment of acute iron poisoning – Clinical experiences with 172 children. Clin Pediatr 5:531, 1966



Hruby K, and Donner A: 2,3-dimercapto-1-proponesulfonate in heavy metal poisoning. Medical Toxicol 2:317,1987

McGowan EL, Tillotson JA, Knudsen JJ, and Dumalo CR: Biological behavior and metabolic fate of the BAL analogues DMSA and DMPS. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 27:169, 1984

Yajima Y, Kawaguchi M, Yoshikawa M, Okubo M, Tsukagoshi E, Sato K, Katakura A. The effects of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the nephrotoxicity in the mouse during repeated cisplatin (CDDP) treatments. J Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Jun;134(2):108-115. doi: 10.1016/j.jphs.2017.05.006. Epub 2017 Jun 3. PubMed PMID: 28648300.

García-Valdés M, Ortega-García JA, Menéndez-Naranjo L, de la Rubia Nieto A. [Use of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid in a child with severe mercury-vapour poisoning]. Farm Hosp. 2011 May-Jun;35(3):158-60. doi: 10.1016/j.farma.2010.09.002. Epub 2011 Mar 31. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 21454115.

Al-Madani WA, Siddiqi NJ, Alhomida AS, Khan HA, Arif IA, Kishore U. Increased  urinary excretion of carnitine and acylcarnitine by mercuric chloride is reversed by 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonic acid in rats. Int J Toxicol. 2010 May-Jun;29(3):313-7. doi: 10.1177/1091581810364852. PubMed PMID: 20448264.

Rödiger M, Zhang X, Ugele B, Gersdorff N, Wright SH, Burckhardt G, Bahn A. Organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) and renal transport of the metal chelator 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 Feb;88(2):141-6. doi: 10.1139/Y09-123. PubMed PMID: 20237588; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4417359.

Sato T, Okubo M, Sawaki K, Maehashi H, Kawaguchi M. Paradoxical effect of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) on enhancing antitumor activity of cisplatin in ascites sarcoma 180 cells. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;112(3):361-8. Epub 2010 Mar 2. PubMed PMID: 20197637.

Carvalho MC, Franco JL, Ghizoni H, Kobus K, Nazari EM, Rocha JB, Nogueira CW, Dafre AL, Müller YM, Farina M. Effects of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) on methylmercury-induced locomotor deficits and cerebellar toxicity in mice. Toxicology. 2007 Oct 8;239(3):195-203. Epub 2007 Jul 13. PubMed PMID: 17703864.

Drasch G, Boese-O’Reilly S, Illig S. Increase of renal excretion of organo-mercury compounds like methlymercury by DMPS (2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid, Dimaval). Clin Toxicol (Phila).2007;45(3):266-9. PubMed PMID: 17453878.

Santos FW, Zeni G, Rocha JB, do Nascimento PC, Marques MS, Nogueira CW. Efficacy of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide on cadmium induced testicular damage in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Dec;43(12):1723-30. PubMed PMID: 16000234.

Pingree SD, Simmonds PL, Woods JS. Effects of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) on tissue and urine mercury levels following prolonged methylmercury exposure in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2001 Jun;61(2):224-33. PubMed PMID: 11353131.

Wax PM, Thornton CA. Recovery from severe arsenic-induced peripheral neuropathy with 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulphonic acid. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2000;38(7):777-80. PubMed PMID: 11192465.

Bernal J, Lee JH, Cribbs LL, Perez-Reyes E. Full reversal of Pb++ block of L-type Ca++ channels requires treatment with heavy metal antidotes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jul;282(1):172-80. PubMed PMID: 9223552.

Aposhian MM, Maiorino RM, Xu Z, Aposhian HV. Sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS) treatment does not redistribute lead or mercury to the brain of rat. Toxicology. 1996 May 3;109(1):49-55. PubMed PMID: 8619252.

Herrmann M, Schweinsberg F. [Biomonitoring for the evaluation of a mercury burden from amalgam fillings. Mercury determination in urine before and after oral doses of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and in hair]. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1993 May;194(3):271-91. German. PubMed PMID: 8338616.

Domingo JL, Bosque MA, Llobet JM, Corbella J. Amelioration by BAL (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) and DMPS (sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid) of arsenite developmental toxicity in mice. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1992 Jun;23(3):274-81. PubMed PMID: 1376232.



Graziano JH, Leong JK, and Friedheim E: 2,3 Dimercaptosuccinic acid: a new agent for the treatment of lead poisoning. J Pharm Exp Ther 206:697, 1978

Graziano JH: Role of 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. Med Toxicol 1:155, 1986

Kapoor SC, Wielopolski L, Graziano JH, and LoIocano NJ: Influence of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on gastrointestinal lead absorption and whole-body lead retention. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 97:525, 1989

Maiorino RM, Bruce DC, and Aposhian HV: Determination and metabolism of dithiol chelating agents: VI. Isolation and identification of the mixed disulfides of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid with L-cysteine in human urine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 97:338, 1989

.McGowan EL, Tillotson JA, Knudsen JJ, and Dumalo CR: Biological behavior and metabolic fate of the BAL analogues DMSA and DMPS. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 27:169, 1984



Kean WF, Dwosh IL, Anastassiades TP, et al: The toxicity pattern of d-penicillamine therapy. Arthritis Rheum 23:158, 1984

Selander S: Treatment of lead poisoning. A comparison between the effects of sodium calcium edetate and penicillamine administered orally and intravenously. Brit J Indust Med 24:272, 1967

Stein HB, Patterson AC, Offer RC, et al: Adverse effects of d-penicilamine in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Int Med 92:24, 1980

Walshe JM: Penicillamine, new oral therapy for Wilson’s disease. Am J Med. 21:487, 1956



Calcium disodium edetate and disodium edetate. Drugs for human use; drug efficacy study implementation. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Food and Drug Administration. Federal Registrar 35 F.R. 437, 1970.

Cheraskin E, Wussow DG, McDonagh EW and Rudolph CJ: Effect of EDTA chelation and supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation with and without physical activity on the heart rate. J InternAcadof Prev Medi 8(6):5, 1984.

Cohen SH, Gong JK and Fishler MC: Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment of internal radioactive contamination. Nucleonics (11)1: 56, 1953.

Darwish NM and Kratzer FH: Metabolism of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) by chickens. J Nutr 86:187, 1965.

Donsbach KW: Chelation Therapy; Has the Plug Been Pulled on Our Biggest Killer? Huntington Beach, CA, International Institute of Health, 1981.

Diagnostic and therapeutic technology assessment: Chelation therapy. JAMA 250:672,1983.

Editorial EDTA chelation: a rebuttal. J Adv Med 5:3, 1992

Grier MT and Meyers DG: So much writing, so little science: A review of 37 years of literature on edetate sodium chelation therapy. Ann Pharmacother 27:1504, 1993

Halstead BW, Rozema T: The Scientific Basis of EDTA ChelationTherapy, Second Edition. Tryon, N.C. TRC Publishing, Box 1241, Tryon NC 28782

Harper JW and Gordon GF: Reprints of Medical Literature on Chelation Therapy. Los Angeles, American Academy of Medical Preventics, 1975.

Hausmann E: Changes in plasma phosphate concentration on infusion of calcium gluconate or Na2EDTA. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 134:182, 1970.

Hay DR: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 101(841):122, 1988.

Hay DR: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 101(845):246, 1988.

HoIm LW: The use of calcium disodium salt of Versene in heavy-metal poisoning of livestock. Proc Am Vet Med Assoc (48): 33, 1954.

Jonas WB: Meta-analysis of EDTA chelation: Math that doesn’t matter. J Adv Med 7:109, 1994.

Jonas WB: Effectiveness of EDTA chelation therapy. Circulation 5:1352, 1995.

Koen A, McCann DS and Boyle AJ: Some in vivo effects of chelation. II. Animal experimentation. J Chron Dis 16:329, 1963.

Jones RJ: Chelation therapy (Letter). JAMA 250:672, 1983.

Konradi MG: Use of the disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate for diagnosing latent forms of hypoparathyroidism. Prob Endokrinol (Russ.) (23)3: 46, 1977.

Kozlov VA and Novikova VM: Calcium ion-dependent immunosuppressive effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Zh Mikrobiol, Epidemiol Immunobiol (Russ.) (1): 69, 1978.

Leitner SA: Last chance to live. Wade Allen Publishing, Chesterfield, MO, 1980.

Luchi RJ, Helwig J Jr and Conn HL Jr: Quinidine txoicity and its treatment. An experimental study. Am Heart J 65:340, 1963.

Lelievre P and Betz EH: Effect of versene on oxygen consumption of tissues in vitro. C R Soc Biol 155:199, 1961.

Liberman UA, Barzel U, De Vries A and Ellis H: Myositis ossificans traumatica with unusual course. Effect of EDTA on calcium, phosphorus and mangenese excretion. Am J Med Sci 254:35, 1967.

Lochte HL Jr, Ferrebee JW and Thomas ED: The effect of heparin and EDTA on DNA synthesis by marrow in vitro. J Lab Clin Med 55435, 1960

Lonsdale D: EDTA chelation therapy. Am J Surg 166:316, 1993.

Lyons RD: Chelation: miracle cure or false hope? Med J Aust 142: 519, 1985.

Magee HR: Chelation therapy for atherosclerosis. Med J Aust 143:127, 1985.

Magee HR: Chelation treatment of atherosclerosis. Med J Aust 142:514, 1985.

Maxwell GM, Elliot RB and Robertson E: The effect of Na3EDTA-induced hypocalcemia upon the general and coronary hemodynamics of the intact animal. Am Heart J 66:82, 1963.

Meltzer L, Kitchell J and Palmon F: The long term use, side effects, and toxicity of disodium ethylelenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Am J Med Sci (242): 11, 1961

McCoy JE, Carre IJ and Freeman M: A controlled trial of edathamil calcium disodium in acrodynia. Pediatrics 25:304, 1960.

McDonagh E: Circulation changes in extremities with chelation therapy. Paper presented at American Academy of Medical Preventics Fall Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, November, 1982

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The homeostatic effect of EDTA with supportive multivitamin trace mineral supplementation upon high-density lipoproteins (HDL). J Osteopath Phys Surg Calif 8: #2, Spring 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The effect of intra-venous disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plus supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation upon fasting serum calcium. Med Hypotheses 11:431, 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) distribution in EDTA chelation eligible patients. J Orthomolecular Psych 12:72,1983.

McDonagh EW and Rudolph CJ: A collection of published papers showing the efficacy of EDTA chelation Therapy. Gladstone, MO, McDonagh Medical Center, 1991.

McDonagh EW: Chelation can cure: How to reverse heart disease, diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure or surgery. Kansas City, Platinum Pen Publications, 1983.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The effect of intravenous disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) upon blood cholesterol levels in a private practice environment. J Intern Acad of Prev Med 7:5, 1982.

McDonagh E.W, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The effect of EDTA chelation therapy with multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation upon reported fatigue. J of Orthomol Psy 13(4):1, 1984.

McDonagh EW ,Rudolph CJ, Cheraskin E and Wussow DG: The effect of EDTA chelation and supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation with and without physical activity upon systolic blood pressure. J Orthomol Psy 13;1, 1984.

McDonagh EW,, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The psychotherapeutic potential of EDTA chelation. The J OrthomolPsy 14(3):214, 1985.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The clinical changes in patients treated with EDTA chelation plus multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation. The J Orthomol Psy 14(1):61, 1985.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: An oculocerebrovasculometric analysis of the improvement in vascular stenosis following edta chelation therapy. J Holistic Med 4(1): 21, 1982

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The Influence of EDTA salts plus multivitamin-trace mineral therapy upon total serum cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Med Hypotheses 9:643, 1982

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ, and Cheraskin E: The effect of EDTA chelation therapy plus multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation upon vascular dynamics: ankle/brachial doppler systolic blood pressure ratio. J Holistic Med 7(1):16, 1985.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ ,Cheraskin E: The effect of EDTA chelation therapy plus sup­portive multivitamin-trace mineral supplementation upon renal function: A study in serum creatinine. J Holistic Medicine 4:146, 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CS, Cheraskin E: The effect of EDTA chelation therapy plus sup­portive multivtamin-trace mineral supplementation upon renal function: A study in blood urea nitrogen (BUN). J Holistic Medicine 5(2):163, 1983

Meltzer LE: Chelation Therapy. In Seven MJ and Johnson LA (eds): Metal Binding in Medicine. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1960

Meltzer LE, Palmon FJ, and Kitchell JR: Hypoglycemia induced by disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid. Lancet 2:637, 1961.

Meltzer LE, Kitchell JR, and Palmon FJ: The long term use, side effects, and toxicity of disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Am J Med Sci 242:11, 1961

Monaco GP and Green S: Recognizing deception in the promotion of untested and unproven medical treatments. NY State J of Med 2:88, 1993

Myers HL: Topical chelation therapy for varicose pigmentation. Angiology 17:66, 1966.

Nakano J, Cole B and Ishii T: Effects of disodium EDTA on the cardiovascular responses to prostaglandin E1. Experientia 24:808, 1968.

Nedergaard OA and Vagne A: Effect of EDTA and other chelating agents on norepinephrine uptake by rabbit aorta in vitro. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 11:87, 1968

Neldner KH, Winklemann RK and Perry HO: Scleroderma. An evaluation of treatment with disodium edetate. Arch Derm 86:305, 1962

Offer GW: The antagonistic action of magnesium ions and ethylenediaminetetraacetate on myosin A ATPase (potassium activated). Biochim Biophys Acta 89:566, 1964

Ontka JA: Physical and chemical changes in isolated chylomicrons: prevention by EDTA. J Lipid Res 11:367, 1970

Oser BL, Oser M and Spencer HC: Safety evaluation studies of calcium EDTA. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 5:142, 1963

Peng CF, Kane JJ, Murphy ML, Straub KD: Abnormal mitochondrial oxidative phosphoryla­tion of ischemic myocardium reversed by calcium chelating agents. J Mol Cell Cardiol 9:897, 1977

Perry HM Jr and Schroeder HA: Depression of cholesterol levels in human plasma following ethylenediamine tetraacetate and hydralazine. J Chron Dis 2:520, 1955.

Perry HM and Perry EF: Normal concentrations of some trace minerals in human urine, changes produced by EDTA. J Clin Invest (38):1452, 1959.

Perry H and Schroeder HA: Lesions resembling Vitamin B complex deficiency and urinary loss of zinc produced by EDTA. Am J Med (22): 168, 1957.

Perry HM Jr, and Camel GH: Some effects of CaNa2 EDTA on plasma cholesterol and urinary zinc in man. In: MJ Seven and LA Johnson (Eds). Metal Binding In Medicine. JP Lippincott, Phila., 1960

Platts-Mills A: EDTA chelation therapy. NZ Med J, 101(849):465, 1988

Price JM: Some effects of chelating agents on tryptophan metabolism in man. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):223, 1961

Renoux M and Mikol C: Chelation. Presse Med 72:3117, 1964

Riordan HD, Cheraskin E, Dirks M, et al: EDTA chelation/hypertension study: clinical patterns as judged by the Cornell Medical Index Questionnaire. J Orthomolel Med 4:91, 1989

Robinson DM: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 74:750, 1982

Riordon HD, Cheraskin E, Dirks M, et al: Electrocardiographic changes associated with EDTA chelation therapy. J Adv Med 1:191, 1988

Rosenman RH and Smith MK: The effect of certain chelating substances (EDTA) upon cholesterol .

Rozema TC. Metabolic responses during magnesium disodium EDTA administration. Plzen. lek. Sborn 1990 ; Suppl. 62 : 177-178metabolism in the rat. J Clin Invest 35:11, 1956

Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW and Barber RK: Effect of EDTA chelation and supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation on chronic lung disorders: a study of FVC and FEV1. J Adv Med 2(4): 553,1989

Rudolph CJ, Samuels RT and McDonagh EW: Visual field evidence of macular degeneration reversal using a combination of EDTA and multiple vitamin and trace mineral therapy. J Adv Med 7:203, 1994

Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW, Wussow, DG: The effect of intravenous ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) upon bone density levels. J Advancement Med 1(2):79, 1988.

Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW: The chelation carrier solution: An analysis of osmolarity and sodium content. Journal of the International Academy of Preventive Medicine 8(1):26, 1983

Saunders JF, Princiotto JV and Rubin M: Effect of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate on hypercholesterolemic rabbits.Soc Exp Biol & Med 92:29, 1956

Schachter MB Letter to the editor: chelation therapy. Circulation 91(4):2291, 1995

Schubert J: Chelation in medicine. Sci Am 214:40, 1966

Soffer A: Chelation Therapy. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1964

Soffer A, Toribara T and Sayman A: Myocardial responses to chelation. Brit Heart J 23:690, 1961.

Stecker RH and Bennett M: Chelation in clinical otosclerosis. Arch Otolaryng 70:627, 1959

Thompson LJ: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 103:326, 1990

Welcher FJ: The Analytical Uses of Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid 5. Van Nostrand, Princeton.

Wong G: The chemistry of EDTA (a brief treatment). H Harper and G Gordon (Eds.). Reprints of Medical Literature on Chelation Therapy. Amer Acad Med Prev Los Angeles, 1974.

Jick S and Karsh R: The effect of calcium chelation on cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances. Am J Cardiol 4:287, 1959.

Nayler WG: Ventricular arrhythmias following the administration of Na2EDTA. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 137:5, 1962

Soffer A, Toribara T, Moore-Jones D and Weber D: Clinical applications and untoward reactions of chelation in cardiac arrhythmias Arch Inten Med 106:824, 1960.

Surawicz B: Use of chelating agent, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, in digitalis intoxication and cardiac arrhythrnias. Prog in CardiovascularDis p. 432, 1960.

Surawicz B, MacDonald MG, Kaljot V,et al: Treatment of cardiac arrythmias with salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Am Heart J(58): 493, 1959.

Surawicz B, MacDonald MG, Kaljot V and Bettinger JC: The effect of intravenous administration of disodium and dipotassium EDTA on cardiac arrhythmias. In:Seven MJ and Johnson LA (Editors) Metal -binding in Medicine, JB Lippincott Co. Philadelphia, 1960

Szekely P and Wynne NA: Effects of calcium chelation on digitalis-induced cardiac arrhythmias. Brit Heart J 25:589, 1963.

Birk RE and Rupe CE: The treatment of systemic sclerosis with disodium EDTA, pyridoxine and reserpine. Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull 14:109, 1966

Blankenhorn DH: Calcium deposits in the plaque. In: Evolution of the Plaque. (Ed.RJ Jones) Univ Chi Press Chicago pp297.

Boyle AJ, Jasper JJ, McCormick H, et al: Studies in human and induced atherosclerosis employing – (EDTA). Bull Swiss Acad Med Sci 13:408, 1957

Boyle AJ, Clarke NE, Mosher RE, McCann DS: Chelation therapy in circulatory and scleros­ing diseases. Fed Proc 20(3) (Part II) (suppl 10):243-257, 1961.

Brucknerova O, Tulacek J and Krojzl O: Chelates in the treatment of obliterating arteriopathies. Vnitrni Lek 14:841, 1968.

Brucknerova O and Malinovska V: First clinical experience with combined treatment with chelation III and glucagon in ischemic disease of the lower extremities, Cas Lek Cas 119:814,1980.

Brucknerova O, Tulacek J: Chelates in the treatment of occlusive atherosclerosis. (Czech, Praha) Vnitr Lek 18:729, 1972.

Casdorph HR: EDTA chelation therapy, efficacy in arteriosclerotic heart disease. J Holistic Medicine 3(1):53, 1981.

Casdorph HR: EDTA chelation therapy II, efficacy in brain disorders. J Holistic Medicine 3(2):101, 1981.

Casdorph HR, Farr CH: EDTA chelation therapy Ill: Treatment of peripheral arterial occlu­sion, an alternative to amputation. J Holistic Medicine 3(1):3, 1983.

Chappell LT and Stahl JP: The correlation between EDTA chelation therapy and improvement in cardiovascular function: a meta-analysis. J Adv Med 6(3):139, 1993.

Chappell LT, Stahl JP and Evans R: EDTA chelation treatment for vascular disease: a meta-analysis using unpublished data. J Adv Med 7(3):131, 1994.

Cappell LT, Janson M, Whitaker J: A challenge to cardiovascular surgeons. J Adv Med 9(3): 153, 199

Chappell LT and Margolis S: Point-Counterpoint on EDTA chelation therapy. Alternative Therapies 1(2):53, 1994

Chappell LT: EDTA chelation therapy should be more commonly used in the treatment of vascular disease. Alternative Therapies Health Med 1:53, 1995.

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